Tuesday, January 20, 2015

Geneticist clarifies role of Proto-Malays in human origin


 
INTERVIEW Leading Oxford University geneticist Dr Stephen Oppenheimer is taken aback by how politically charged the research into the origins of human population is in Malaysia. Most recently, strong reaction had arisen over media coverage of a conference on the origins of the Malay race, which marked the Orang Asli - the Senoi, Semang and the Proto-Malays - as torchbearers of the modern human race. NONEClarifying this finding in an interview last week, Oppenheimer said the Orang Asli, particularly the Semang and the Proto-Malays are direct descendants of the first humans who stepped foot in Southeast Asia (then Sunda), and are “ancestral” for east Asia and the Americas. “Particularly, the Semang and the Proto-Malay have lineages which are characteristic and very unique to their own populations, which clearly have a local geographic distribution. So they have been here since the original settlers...,” he said. Sequencing random mutations in mitochondrial DNA, a type of DNA inherited only from mothers, Oppenheimer traces the origins of human population, from the first human in Africa, to the homeland of Europeans in the Arabian gulf and to homeland of east Asians in Sunda. Oppenheimer was in Kuala Lumpur last Friday to present a paper at the Asal Usul Melayu: Induknya di Alam Melayu conference organised by the Association of Malaysian Archeologists. He is the author of the books ‘Eden in the East’ and ‘Out of Eden’ which details his theories on human population migration. A graphic presentation of his research can be found here. Excerpts of the interview follow. The content has been edited for language, brevity and flow. Malaysiakini: You use your research in mitochondrial DNA to trace the origins of the human population. 
 Your theory is that there was only one single migration out of Africa. Stephen Oppenheimer: The ancestry of all humans living today is from Africa. From looking at the mitochondrial tree, for the whole human species that is still alive today, you'll find most of the branches and roots are in Africa. When you look at the rest of the world, it belongs to one twig of the African tree. (In order for this to happen), you will have only one exit. If you had two exits, you would have two twigs, or more twigs out of Africa. We don't. We only see one twig represented outside of Africa, the so-called L3, and its two daughter branches M and N. In what year was that single migration? It's possible to date the age of L3. It's 60,000-80,000 or even 60,0000-90,000 years ago, depending on the method that you use. So the exit from Africa is somewhere between 55,000 and 85,000 years ago. NONEAnd people are very keen to date exactly when it is. One of the very important date markers which occurred during that time, between 55,000 and 85,000 years ago, was the explosion of the Toba volcano in North Sumatra. The Toba volcano is 100km long, 30km wide. That's where the Batak live (today). It was the biggest bang in the last 2.5 million years. It affected populations throughout the world. But it particularly affected populations in India. In the book ‘Out of Eden’, I wrote about this. I suggested that the exit from Africa was before Toba on the basis on genetics. But this is still a controversial area and I think it is an open question still, whether it was before Toba or soon after, but it was somewhere around 70,000 years ago. Where did this single group of about 250 people, who came out of Africa, go? The South coast. They went to Djibouti... and then the south Arabian coast to the Gulf, but the Gulf was not there as the sea levels were right down. Then they went to India, Sri Lanka, and from there they went to the Bay of Bengal, and to the Malay peninsula. Southeast Asia was different then. Instead of islands and a long thin Malay peninsula, it was a block of land... called the Sunda continent or the Sunda Shelf. NONEPeople who came out of Africa moved very rapidly towards there and you can tell (this) from the way the (mitochondrial DNA) tree is structured. They did not stay in any one place for a very long time. They moved on. They left colonies all along the route. But the vanguard moved very rapidly over a couple of thousand years, right down to Bali. The ancestors of the three Orang Asli groups (the Senai, Semang and Proto-Malays) in the Malay peninsula arrived in the vanguard. They descended from the very first people who put foot in this region in Malaya. The Toba eruption wiped out populations in East India but not in Sunda.
What happened to the ones in Africa? The ones in Africa were fine. The ones who settled in the Arabian gulf region were probably fine, but the east coast of India were severely hit. Because the volcano is in Sumatra and the wind was going northeast. The ash completely showered India. It's difficult to make these estimates but 10,000 is used a lot (for the number of survivors in Sunda). A small number. Did floods push migration out of Sunda? In the last 16,000 years, the ice started melting and it melted very rapidly in three big events. The first one was 14,500 years ago, a really major melt. The second one was 11,500 years ago and the third one 8,500 years ago. If you look at the genetic record for east Asia, you'll find that for each of these melts, you will see a rapid genetic expansion. It's very tempting to think that the reason they were dispersing was because the sea was moving in. Comparing the genetic make-up of the Malays today and the Orang Asli, would you say the latter would have a stronger link to the original settlers? Particularly the Semang and the Proto-Malay have lineages which are characteristic and very unique to their own populations, which clearly have a local geographic distribution. So they have been here since the original settlers... They've stayed at home on the Malay peninsula. The Malays share some Orang Asli lineages, they have some of their own unique to island Southeast Asia and about half of the Malay mitochondrial lines come from Indonesia. And that's not a big surprise in itself, because we know even in the last couple of hundred years there have been immigrant populations - the Bugis, the Banja, the Rawa from Sumatera, the Minangkabau from Sumatra and the Jawa from Java. If you look at the genetics of these people they are characteristic of where they come from. 
 So the interchange between island Southeast Asia and the Malay peninsula is very strong but it is also very old. It has not just occurred during the neolithic (period but) goes back 20,000 years. One thing for certain is that Southeast Asians are 'ancestral for' the rest of east Asia. Yes, in a sense I think the other way to put it is that Southeast Asia is the homeland of the dispersal of the people who went north into China and right into the Americas. The Southeast Asians themselves are descendants of the original settlers. orang asli rightsI think that the Orang Asli are slightly different in the sense that they show evidence of being in the same place right from the start. If one is talking about the rest of Southeast Asia, including the Malays, the effect of rising waters which pushed people all around in Indonesia has meant a lot more mixing. It is within Southeast Asia. If one takes Southeast Asia as a whole, the ancestry of the Malays and Indonesian, are just as old as the Orang Asli. Only the Orang Asli stayed put while the others moved around. There has been a view which has dominated teaching over the past 20 years that the (original) south-east Asian (settlers) were replaced by rice farmers from Taiwan, 4,000 or so years ago, who sailed to the Philippines and Indonesia and wiped out all indigenous population there. NONEThe evidence for that is very, very poor and the genetic evidence is almost zero. We did look for good evidence of migration from Taiwan towards the Philippines and Indonesia and we found two lineages amounting to 6 percent of the population but the rest had already arrived before the neolithic (period) and not from Taiwan. They also did not come from China into Southeast Asia. 
Southeast Asia was the first to be settled. China was colonised from Southeast Asia rather than the other way around. The title of the conference (last Friday) refers to the ‘origins of the Malays’. Where do they come from? About half from island Southeast Asia, about the other half mainland Southeast Asia. There are other origins which we are doing research into right now. Ultimately, they came out of Africa and their ancestors arrived here over 60,000 or more years ago. Basically we're all cousins. The homeland of all humans is Africa, while the homeland of all east Asians and the Americas is Southeast Asia. Where do Europeans come from? If you ask me, a single place that they come from is the region around the Gulf, Iraq and Iran. It's the eastern part of the Middle East. The people who went up to the Gulf moved later, only 50,000 years ago. The people who had gone to Sunda left a long time before. The movement to Europe was a delayed branch. People have got to Sunda before the ancestors of the Europeans had even left the Gulf. There were a lot of fresh water lakes, and was probably a very nice place to stay. How do you view attempts to reconcile the scientific findings with creationism, and attempts to find Adam insofar as human migration is concerned? In my first book ‘Eden in the East’, which spoke of the Sunda continent and the movement out to the Pacific, I spent the first half looking at what is called folklore, which includes religious stories and how the branches of that folklore have moved in Asia and Eurasia. There are common features of Southeast Asian folklore, Pacific folklore and Western folklore. 
Too many coincidences for it to be by chance. For instance, the story of the flood. People have always regarded the story of the flood to be so extraordinary to be not possibly true. dna testing 180708But geologically we know there were these floods. Genetically we know the effect of these floods was to get people running in all directions in their boats... The flood was actually worse in places like the Gulf, which was flat land, and Southeast Asia, again (was then) a very flat continental shelf. The stories of the flood have families and you can look at these families geographically the same way as you look at distributions of mitochondrial DNA. When you look at these stories, there are some common core stories which appear in many religious texts. A section of the Old Testament, Genesis, describes the flood and the period after the flood and the separation of population by the names of the descendants of Noah. Those names are still present in the language families in part of the old world. For instance, the three sons of Noah - Ham, Sham and Japhet. Ham is African and one of his descendants, Kush, is also African and we have the Hamitic and Kushitic languages in Africa... I don't discount the folklore, religious and non-religious, as a potential source. NONE
Not the only source as, if you look at some folklore, it is quite... (chuckles) ...(but) I don't discount that sort of analysis. So where was Adam? When did the first human live? If you talk about the source of all humankind, modern humans, it has to be Africa. From the biological definition, paleontologists would say all species which names start of with homo (began) 2.5 million years ago. For homo sapiens it is probably is about 200,000 years, not very long, and most of that time was in Africa. The homo sapiens in Africa replaced the humans of the previous types and the ones who left Africa replaced all the non-Africans of the previous type. Homo sapiens are what you are referring to when you talk about modern humans. That's right. Modern humans is a very closely related family. We tend to exaggerate difference between peoples... because we need to recognise people in order to behave as social animals... But when you look at it anatomically, the differences between (those living in) different regions of the world is very small, and genetic differences are also very small. So we are a very closely related family, and that include the Africans.

Monday, January 5, 2015

BANJIR

HUTAN GONDOL MENGAKIBATKAN TANAH GAGAL MENAHAN AIR APABILA HUJAN LEBAT

SEBAB UTAMA BANJIR KELANTAN


  • Mangsa banjir di Manek Urai, mengangkut bekalan air untuk keperluan seharian setelah rumahnya musnah akibat limpahan Sungai Kelantan.Mangsa banjir di Manek Urai, mengangkut bekalan air untuk keperluan seharian setelah rumahnya musnah akibat limpahan Sungai Kelantan.
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SHAH ALAM - “Manusia bersifat ego dan tamak. Ini adalah salah satu sebab berlakunya banjir sejak kebelakangan ini,” tegas Dekan Fakulti Perhutanan Universiti Putra Malaysia, Prof Dr Mohamed Zakaria Hussin.

Banjir di Pantai Timur terutama di Kelantan sejak bulan lalu yang dikatakan paling buruk dalam tempoh 60 hingga 70 tahun lalu, mengejutkan banyak pihak dan mula membuka mata masyarakat terhadap kesan buruk penerokaan hutan yang tidak terkawal.

Selepas puluhan tahun dinodai, tanah hutan di kawasan itu dilihat tidak mampu lagi bertahan.

Malah ramai pakar alam sekitar tidak dapat menyembunyikan lagi kekecewaan mereka terhadap kerosakan yang dilakukan terhadap muka bumi Malaysia.

Menurut Mohamed Zakaria, kebanyakan pihak tidak memikirkan kesan jangka masa panjang kepada negara sekiranya penerokaan hutan berlaku secara berleluasa.

Katanya, mereka sanggup melupakan kepentingan alam flora demi mengejar wang ringgit serta keuntungan semata-mata daripada memikirkan keperluan hutan dalam sesebuah negara.

“Ada pihak yang hanya nampak projek pembangunan dan projek ini boleh mengaut jutaan ringgit,” katanya ketika dihubungi Sinar Harian.

Beliau berkata, Malaysia bukan sahaja mengalami banjir tetapi turut berdepan krisis air ketika musim kemarau, walaupun negara ini antara yang menerima hujan paling banyak di dunia sekali gus menunjukkan pengurusan alam sekitar yang tidak cekap.

Menurutnya, banjir berlaku kerana tiada pokok menadah air semasa hujan, menyebabkan air yang banyak mengalir ke kawasan berdekatan termasuk tempat kediaman.

“Kalau musim hujan, banjir berlaku. Semasa musim kemarau pula, air berkurangan dan tanah menjadi kering-kontang. Mengapa perkara ini berlaku?,” soalnya.

Katanya, hutan adalah aset yang sangat penting bagi menyerap dan menapis air hujan, iaitu salah satu sebab utama empangan serta kawasan tadahan air dibina di kawasan hutan.

Beliau menjangkakan banjir besar yang berlaku di Pantai Timur baru-baru ini, boleh berlaku pada bila-bila masa sekiranya kerajaan dan rakyat tidak mengambil tindakan sewajarnya bagi mengatasi masalah ini.

“Kita perlu contohi Finland. Rakyatnya akan menanam semula pokok balak selepas menebangnya. Mereka (rakyat Finland) tahu menjaga hutan demi mewujudkan kelestarian kepada generasi yang akan datang,” katanya.

Selain itu, Mohamed Zakaria berharap pihak bertanggungjawab membuat kerja-kerja mendalamkan sungai di negara ini yang kebanyakannya cetek supaya sungai dapat menampung air hujan pada kuantiti yang banyak.

“Saya harap, semua pihak mengambil iktibar serta pengajaran selepas berlakunya banjir buruk yang melanda negara yang kita cintai ini,” katanya.

Rasuah tambah kerosakan alam sekitar

Kurangnya pokok dan tumbuhan untuk menyerap air hujan menjadi salah satu faktor berlakunya banjir teruk di negara ini sejak bulan lalu.

Dekan Fakulti Pertanian Universiti Putra Malaysia, Prof Dr Abdul Shukor Juraimi berkata, tumbuhan adalah ejen terbaik untuk menyerap air hujan dan ia sekali gus mengurangkan kebergantungan kepada tanah menyerap air.

“Kalau hujan berlaku di hutan tebal, tumbuhan di hutan tersebut mampu menadah air. Jadi, sekiranya tiada tumbuhan, bagaimana air hujan dapat ditadah?,” katanya.

Menurut beliau, apabila air bertakung di atas tanah dengan kadar yang tidak mampu diserap oleh tanah, banjir akan berlaku.

Abdul Shukor tidak menafikan faktor penerokaan tanah menjadi salah satu punca banjir berlaku dengan teruk.

Beliau berharap, sebuah jawatankuasa ditubuhkan bagi memantau keadaan cuaca serta taburan hujan di negara ini selepas apa yang berlaku.

Menurutnya, dengan penubuhan jawatankuasa ini, ia sedikit sebanyak dapat membantu rakyat untuk bersiap sedia andai berlakunya insiden seperti ini pada masa yang akan datang.

Sementara itu, Ketua Jabatan Biologi Fakulti Sains Universiti Putra Malaysia, Prof Dr Ahmad Ismail memberitahu, sudah tiba masanya semua pihak menjaga hutan secara serius bagi mengelak berlakunya banjir besar berulang lagi.

Menurutnya, kemungkinan bencana banjir buruk itu berulang adalah sangat tinggi jika tiada sebarang tindakan susulan diambil.

“Kita tidak perlu berasa pelik sekiranya perkara yang sama berlaku pada masa depan,” katanya.

Menurutnya, aktiviti manusia seperti penebangan pokok terutama di kawasan tanah tinggi adalah salah satu punca utama banjir buruk itu, selain beberapa faktor lain seperti perubahan iklim dunia dan pemanasan global.

“Jika kita tengok di Kelantan, kawasan yang sering berlakunya banjir di negeri tersebut ialah di kawasan tepi sungai dan kawasan penebangan pokok.
“Semua aliran air ini akan menuju ke sungai dan apabila sungai tidak lagi mampu menampung air maka, berlakulah banjir,” katanya.

Menurut Ahmad, hujan lebat sukar dikawal kerana ia adalah lumrah alam namun, kerajaan dan rakyat boleh mengelak banjir besar sekiranya tindakan segera diambil.

Tegasnya, antara langkah yang perlu dibuat adalah melarang sama sekali penebangan pokok di kawasan tanah tinggi.

“Kita sudah ada panduan dan prosedur untuk menebang hutan. Peraturan ini perlu dipatuhi oleh semua pihak sebelum melakukan penebangan,” katanya.

Badan bukan kerajaan, Majlis Perundingan Pertubuhan Islam Malaysia (Mapim) juga sebelum ini mendesak kerajaan mengkaji semula semua projek pembangunan yang tidak lestari alam.

Presidennya, Mohd Azmi Abdul Hamid berkata, isu ketidaklestarian pembangunan amat penting jika kerajaan bersungguh-sungguh untuk mengatasi pelbagai masalah yang berkait dengan alam sekitar.

Tambahnya, usaha memerangi rasuah juga harus menjadi agenda utama kerajaan bagi mengelakkan eksploitasi alam sekitar.

“Rasuah menyebabkan alam sekitar terdedah kepada salah guna kuasa yang boleh memburukkan lagi kerosakan alam. Masalah utama bukan kerana tidak ada polisi dan peraturan, sebaliknya isu paling besar ialah kelemahan perlaksanaan dan pengawalan,” katanya.

5 faktor berlaku banjir


Terdapat banyak faktor yang menyebabkan berlakunya banjir. Tetapi di sini aku mengutarakan 5 faktor yang biasanya menjadi penyebab kepada banjir. Antara faktor-faktor tersebut adalah:-

  1. Hujan lebat yang berterusan

Hujan lebat yang berterusan tanpa henti akan menyebabkan banjir berlaku terutama di kawasan rendah. Ini kerana air yang banyak tidak sempat dialirkan keluar ke sungai.

  1. Pembangunan yang tidak terancang

Pembangunan yang tidak terancang boleh menjadi factor kepada banjir kilat. Ini kerana apabila system perparitan tidak dirancang dengan sempurna semasa sesuatu kawasan hendak dibangunkan akan menyebabkan tidak ada system aliran air atau system aliran air yang sedia ada menjadi terhalang dan tidak dialirkan secara wajarnya.

  1. Limpahan sungai

Hal ini berlaku apabila sungai yang cetek atau sempit tidak mampu menampung jumlah air yang banyak. Akibatnya ia melimpah keluar dan menyebabkan banjir di kawasan sekitarnya. Biasanya sungai membawa air dari kawasan tinggi dan mengalirkannya ke laut. Apabila berlaku hujan lebat yang berterusan di kawasan tinggi, dengan keadaan sungai yang cetek atau sempit boleh menyebabkan berlakunya banjir di kawasan yang rendah. Lihat banjir di Kota Bharu.

  1. Longkang, parit dan sungai yang tersumbat

Ini juga merupakan factor kepada banjir kilat. Apabila hujan lebat yang berterusan maka air pada peringkat awalnya perlu dialirkan ke longkang. Kemudian daripada longkang perlu dialirkan ke parit seterusnya ke sungai. Apabila longkang, parit atau sungai tersumbat maka ianya akan mengganggu aliran tersebut dan akan mengakibatkan air bertangkung dan menyebabkan banjir.

  1. Air dari empangan yang dilepaskan secara mendadak

Bagi negeri-negeri yang mempunyai empangan selalunya akan menghadapi banjir teruk sekiranya air dari empangan dilepaskan secara mendadak. Ini disebabkan oleh tidak adanya perancangan awal dari pihak berkuasa. Air dari empangan sememangnya perlu dilepaskan apabila melebihi paras yang ditetapkan. Ini bagi mengelak empangan tersebut pecah. Sekiranya empangan tersebut pecah maka ini akan mengundang bahaya yang besar kepada penduduk. Air dari empangan tidak seharusnya dilepaskan secara mendadak sekiranya perancangan awal dan pemantauan sentiasa dilakukan di empangan tersebut.

Itulah antara beberapa factor yang menyebabkan berlaku banjir. Tugas semua pihak diperlukan bagi mengurangkan factor banjir seperti menjaga sungai dan kebersihan persekitaran kita. Pihak berkuasa dan pemaju pula perlu lebih bertanggungjawab terhadap pembangunan yang hendak diadakan. Jangan terlalu memikirkan wang semata-mata. Perancangan awal yang lebih teratur amat diperlukan bagi menghadapi musim banjir.


MISI BANTUAN BANJIR

 Misi bantuan mangsa banjir ke Dabong Kuala Kerai, Gua Musang dan Temerloh Pahang oleh Dr Izham Nayan Pengarah Latihan PPIM bersama Pasukan MX GVPBTP.

1 - 5hb. Jan 2015